Kenpo Karate is a martial art that encompasses the various styles of Kenpo (also spelled Kempo) that exist, primarily in the United States, but also in Canada and Europe. Kenpo Karate can refer to any fighting style that traces its roots back to Professor William Chow, who combined aspects of Japanese Kosho-Ryu Kenpo (which he learned from Grandmaster James Mitose) and Chinese Shaolin Kung Fu (which he learned from his father), and spread this new art around Hawaii. Chow's students and their successors spread the art to mainland America shortly thereafter, and continued to adapt the art to fit modern self defense situations. Some of these adaptations included the addition of elements of other arts, such as Okinawan and Shotokan Karate, Escrima, and western boxing. Notable practitioners of Kenpo Karate include Ed Parker, Adriano Emperado, Victor "Sonny" Gascon, George Pesare, Nick Cerio, William Chung Jr., Fredrick Villari, Charles Mattera, and Steve Demasco.